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1 ET edited by Robert Kraft and Gerhard Krodel (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1971) German original 1934.

2 George Strecker, "on the Problem of Jewish Christianity," in Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, 241.

3 Petri Luomanen, "ebionites and Nazarenes," in Jewish Christianity Reconsidered: Rethinking Ancient Groups and Texts, edited yb Matt Jackson-McCabe (Minneapolis:Fortress, 2007),99.

4 Jackson-McCabe, Jewish Christianity Reconsidered, 103; Wolfram Kinzig, "The Nazoraeans," in Jewish Believers in Jesus, edited by Oskar Skarsaune and Reidar Hvalvik (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2007), 479.

5 E.g., Albrecht Ritschl, Die Entstehung der altkatholischen Kerche: Eine kerchen-und dogmenge-schichtliche Monographie, 2nd ed.(Bonn, Germany: Adolph Marcus, 1857), 152-54; Ray A. Pritz, Nazarene Jewish Christianity; From the End of the New Testament Period until Its Disappearance in the Fourth Century (Leiden:Brill, 1988); Martinus C. de Boer, "The Nazoreans: Living at the Boundary of Judaism and Christianity," in  Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity, edited by Graham N. Stanton and Guy G. Stroumsa (Cambridge: University, 1998). Indebted to Jackson-McCabe, Jewish Christianity Reconsidered, 82, 105.

6  Murray J. Harris, 3 Crucial Questions about Jesus (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), 119n16.

7  The foremost include (in alphabetical order) W. Barclay, G.H. Boobyer, R.E. Brown, O. Cullmann, M.
Harris, B.A. Mastin, K. Rahner, E. Stauffer, and A.W. Wainwright. See “Selected Bibliography.”

8  M. Harris, Jesus as God, 274. See also p. 268.

9  M. Harris, Jesus as God, 274.

10 O. Cullman, The Christology of the New Testament, 308-14.

11 R.N. Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity, 139.

12 A.W. Wainwright, “The Confession ‘Jesus is God’ in the New Testament,” 294.

13 Karl Rahner, “Theos in the New Testament,” in Rahner’s Theological Investigations 1:136.

14 R.E. Brown, Jesus God and Man, 23, 28-29.

15 Rudolf Karl Bultmann, Essays, Philosophical and Theological, tr. J.C.G. Greig (New York: Macmillan,
1955), 275.

16 V. Taylor, “Does the New Testament Call Jesus God? 118.

17 A.W. Wainwright, The Trinity in the New Testament (London: SPCK, 1962), 66. Likewise, R.N.
Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity, 141.

18 J. Macquarrie, Jesus Christ in Modern Thought, 295.

19 Raymond E. Brown, “Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?” JTS 26 (1965): 572.

20 R.E. Brown, Jesus God and Man, 33.

21 E.g., R.E. Brown, R.T. France, A.W. Wainwright, J.L. D’Aragon, and tentatively R.N. Longenecker.

22 R.E. Brown, Jesus God and Man, 86.

23 Murray J. Harris, “Titus 2:13 and the Deity of Christ,” in Pauline Studies: Essays Presented to Professor F.F. Bruce on His 70th, eds. Donald A. Hagner and Murray J. Harris (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980), 265-66.

24 R.N. Longenecker, The Christology of Early Jewish Christianity, 140-41.

25 Of the eight major, disputed theos texts (so not including Jn 20.28 and 1 Jn 5.20), the following versions translate half as identifying Jesus as “God” and the other half as not: AV, RV, RSV, NEB. The NRSV even has five of the eight calling Jesus “God.” So much for Christian Fundamentalists alleging the AV adheres to the true doctrine about Jesus more than modern versions do, especially the one preferred by (liberal) scholars!

26 See the chart published by Graeser-Lynn-Schoenheit (One God & One Lord, 618), which shows how the major English versions translate the major, disputed theos texts. This chart is reproduced from Victor Perry’s journal article, “Problem Passages of the New Testament in Modern Translations: Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?” ExpT 87 (1975-76): 214-15. Incidentally, this chart shows that the NASB translates more of these texts as calling Jesus “God” than any other English Bible version. However, it wrongly cites the NEB as identifying Jesus as “God” in Jn 1.1c, surely a misunderstanding of that rendering

27 William Barclay, Jesus As They Saw Him: New Testament Interpretations of Jesus (London: SCM,
1962), 20-21.

28  W. Barclay, Jesus As They Saw Him, 20.

29 Textual criticism is indispensable to the Bible. See, e.g., Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University, 1968); Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism [1981], tr. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids: Leiden, 1987).

30 D.A. Fennema, “John 1.18: ‘God the Only Son,’” NTS 31 (1985): 125.

31 O. Cullmann, Christology, 307-08.

32  M. Harris, Jesus as God, 11.

33  A.E. Harvey, Jesus and the Constraint of History, 157. Similarly, idem, “Christology and the Evidence of the New Testament,” in God Incarnate: Story and Belief, ed. A.E. Harvey (London: SPCK, 1981), 52.

34 R.T. France, “The Worship of Jesus: A Neglected Factor in Christological Debate?” in Christ the Lord: Studies in Christology presented to Donald Guthrie, ed. H.H. Rowdon, 23.

35 O. Cullmann, Christology, 308.

36 M. Harris, Jesus as God, 284.

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This article is authored by Kermit Zarley (Servetus the Evangelical) .
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